• 1 What are the various dependent variable for heat loss?
      1. Temperature of product of combustion at entrance. 2. Time on air.
      3. Temperature of the air. 4. Time on flue gas.
      5. Thickness of checker bricks. 6. Specific heat of checker bricks.
      7. Thermal conductivity of checker bricks. 8. Weight of checker bricks.
      9. Arrangement of checker bricks. 10. Extent of heat-exchanging surface.
      11. Velocity of flow of flue gas. 12. Velocity of flow of air.
      13. Dust or flame content of the product of combustion. 14. Heat transmission coefficient from flue gas to bricks.
      15. Heat transmission coefficient from bricks to air. 16. Heat transmitted in unit time.
      17. Heat loss through enclosure.  
    2 What are the mode of the Heat transfer?
      Heat gets transfered through the medium by means of conduction, convection and  Radiation.
    3 What are the variables that affect furnace capacity?
      Following variables are affecting the furnace capacity  
      1.The temperature of the furnace wall when cold stock is charged. 2.Tempetature to which stock is to be heated.
      3. Temperature of the product of combustion. 4. Emissivity of the product of combustion.
      5. Emissivity of the wall. 6. Emissivity of the heat stock
      7. Ratio of the wall surface to surface of the stock 8.Thickness of the layer of the product of combustion.
      9. Thermal conductivity of stock. 10. Desired uniformity of temperature in the product.
      11. Thickness of heat stock 12. Size of furnace
      13. Velocity of gases in furnace  
    4 What are the different means of Heat loses in case on industrial furnaces and ovens?
      1. Poor insulation. 2. Heat loss by the furnace gases escaping around the door.
      3. Heat loss by radiation through openings. 4. Heat loss due to part of the stock projecting out side of the furnace.
      5. Loss due to conduction of heat through terminal or electrodes. 6. Heat imparted to water-cooled part.
      7. Loss of heat to tongs and charging machines. 8. Loss to trays, conveyors chains and rollers.
      9. Heat loss from furnace wall at Steady state (Steady state loss) and at the time of the operation (Intermediate state loss).
    5 How can we save the heat loss through the furnace or oven?
      1. Reduction of wall losses, including storage loss.  
      2. Application of high-temperature heat to a low temperature charge without loss.
      3. Preheating of the stock by waste heat.  
    6 What are the highest processing temperatures for the industrial processes?
    Heating process or subsequent Operation Highest temperature during heating process In degree C Heating process or subsequent Operation Highest temperature during heating process In degree C
    Drying steel wire 150 Normalizing steel pipe 900
    Drying lacquer 150 Colorizing 930
    Japanning 80-230 Heating sheet bars 930
    Core baking for iron casting 150-230 Normalizing sheet steel 950
    Bluing 260 Carburizing 950
    Hot dip tinning 260 Pack heating sheet steel 950
    Temperature in oil 260 Short-cycle annealing, malleable iron 980
    Tempering high speed steel 350 Cyaniding 980
    Annealing aluminum 400 Glazing porcelain 1000
    Cracking petroleum 400 Vitreous enameling ( Casting ) 1010
    Heating aluminum for rolling 455 Bar and pack heating , S.S. 1040
    Nitrating steel 510 Normalizing stainless steel 930 - 1100
    Annealing brass 540 Rolling stainless steel 960 - 1230
    Annealing  glass 620 Forging titanium alloy 870 - 1070
    Annealing copper 620 Annealing manganese steel casting 1040
    Annealing German silver 650 Heating tool steel for rolling 1040
    Enameling, wet process 650 Heating sheet steel for pressing 1050
    Strain relieving 650-705 Heating spring steel for rolling 1100
    Annealing cold- rolled strip 677-760 Glost firing porcelain 1120
    Porcelain decorating 760 Hardening high speed steel 1200
    Heating brass for rolling 790 Bisque firing porcelain 1235
    Annealing nickel 800 Rivet heating 1250
    Annealing high carbon steel 820 Heating steel for die pressing 1300
    Heat treating medium carbon steel
    850 Calcining limestone 1380
    Patenting wire 870 Welding steel tube 1400
    Box- annealing steel sheets 870 Burning firebrick 1320-1450
    Vitreous-enameling iron steel 870 Burning Portland cement 1430
    Annealing malleable iron 870 Glass melting 1430
    Heating copper for rolling 870 Steel melting 1670
    Forging commercially pure titanium
    870 Melting chromium steel 1790
    Annealing steel castings 900    
    7 What are factors that affect strength and Durability of the furnace?
      1. High temperature. 2. Variation of temperature.
      3. Chemical effect of oxide, sulfur compound , and slags. 4. Oxygen and other gases or vapors at high temperature.
      5. Explosions. 6. Mechanical injury by moving solids.
      7. Steam and water. 8. Excessive loading on roofs and sidewalls.
      9. Yielding of foundation. 10. Vibrations.
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