faq

1  What are the various dependent variable for heat loss?

1. Temperature of product of combustion at entrance.

2. Time on air.

3. Temperature of the air.

4. Time on flue gas.

5. Thickness of checker bricks.

6. Specific heat of checker bricks.

7. Thermal conductivity of checker bricks.

8. Weight of checker bricks.

9. Arrangement of checker bricks.

10. Extent of heat-exchanging surface.

11. Velocity of flow of flue gas.

12. Velocity of flow of air.

13. Dust or flame content of the product of combustion.

14. Heat transmission coefficient from flue gas to bricks.

15. Heat transmission coefficient from bricks to air.

16. Heat transmitted in unit time.

17. Heat loss through enclosure.

2  What are the modes of the Heat transfer?

           Heat gets transfered through the medium by means of conduction, convection and  Radiation and radiation.

3  What are the variables that affect furnace capacity?

Following variables are affecting the furnace capacity

1.The temperature of the furnace wall when cold stock is charged.

2.Tempetature to which stock is to be heated.

3. Temperature of the product of combustion.

4. Emissivity of the product of combustion.

5. Emissivity of the wall.

6. Emissivity of the heat stock

7. Ratio of the wall surface to surface of the stock

8.Thickness of the layer of the product of combustion.

9. Thermal conductivity of stock.

10. Desired uniformity of temperature in the product.

11. Thickness of heat stock

12. Size of furnace

13. Velocity of gases in furnace

4   What are the different means of Heat loses in case on industrial furnaces and ovens?

1. Poor insulation.

2. Heat loss by the furnace gases escaping around the door.

3. Heat loss by radiation through openings.

4. Heat loss from furnace wall at Steady state (Steady state loss) and at the time of the operation (Intermediate state loss).

5. Heat loss due to part of the stock projecting out side of the furnace.

6. Loss due to conduction of heat through terminal or electrodes.

7. Heat imparted to water-cooled part.

8. Loss of heat to tongs and charging machines.

9. Loss to trays, conveyors chains and rollers.

5  How can we save the heat loss through the furnace or oven?

1. Reduction of wall losses, including storage loss.

2. Application of high-temperature heat to a low temperature charge without loss.

3. Preheating of the stock by waste heat.

6  What are the highest processing temperatures for the industrial processes?

Heating process or subsequent Operation

Highest temperature during heating process In degree C

Heating process or subsequent Operation

Highest temperature during heating process In degree C

Drying steel wire

150

Normalizing steel pipe

900

Drying lacquer

150

Colorizing

930

Japanning

80-230

Heating sheet bars

930

Core baking for iron casting

150-230

Normalizing sheet steel

950

Bluing

260

Carburizing

950

Hot dip tinning

260

Pack heating sheet steel

950

Temperature in oil

260

Short-cycle annealing, malleable iron

980

Tempering high speed steel

350

Cyaniding

980

Annealing aluminum

400

Glazing porcelain

1000

Cracking petroleum

400

Vitreous enameling ( Casting )

1010

Heating aluminum for rolling

455

Bar and pack heating , S.S.

1040

Nitrating steel

510

Normalizing stainless steel

930 - 1100

Annealing brass

540

Rolling stainless steel

960 - 1230

Annealing  glass

620

Forging titanium alloy

870 - 1070

Annealing copper

620

Annealing manganese steel casting

1040

Annealing German silver

650

Heating tool steel for rolling

1040

Enameling, wet process

650

Heating sheet steel for pressing

1050

Strain relieving

650-705

Heating spring steel for rolling

1100

Annealing cold- rolled strip

677-760

Glost firing porcelain

1120

Porcelain decorating

760

Hardening high speed steel

1200

Heating brass for rolling

790

Bisque firing porcelain

1235

Annealing nickel

800

Rivet heating

1250

Annealing high carbon steel

820

Heating steel for die pressing

1300

Heat treating medium carbon steel

850

Calcining limestone

1380

Patenting wire

870

Welding steel tube

1400

Box- annealing steel sheets

870

Burning firebrick

1320-1450

Vitreous-enameling iron steel

870

Burning Portland cement

1430

Annealing malleable iron

870

Glass melting

1430

Heating copper for rolling

870

Steel melting

1670

Forging commercially pure titanium

870

Melting chromium steel

1790

Annealing steel castings

900

 

 

7   What are factors that affect strength and Durability of the furnace?

1. High temperature.

2. Variation of temperature.

3. Chemical effect of oxide, sulfur compound , and slags.

4. Oxygen and other gases or vapors at high temperature.

5. Explosions.

6. Mechanical injury by moving solids.

7. Steam and water.

8. Excessive loading on roofs and sidewalls.

9. Yielding of foundation.

10. Vibrations.

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